Friday, 24 November 2017

A Review of Fine Tune Your English, Chapter 17: Mind Your Prepositions notes

 Chapter 17: Mind your Prepositions.
Let me begin with a sentence given in your text :
“the party started on time because the guests arrived in time”.
Here there are two prepositional phrases:
1) on time ,and
2) in Time.
It is  everybody's concern how to use prepositions ,especially with time expressions here “on”and “ in” are used with time .”On time” means at the right time, on the other hand ,”in time” means early enough and not late or within the limits of the prescribed time. so the sentence means the party could be conducted at the  right time because the guests had arrived early enough .
now let's go deep into each of the prepositions


In
in indicates a belief, interest, feeling,state  of mind, external condition, unspecified location etc. :

  1. shows position / enclosure : “in the room’ or “in the bucket”
  2. physical condition: “ in good health”
  3. external condition: “in poverty”
  4. external physical condition:” in the rain”
  5. an emotional state:” in fear”,” in anger”
  6. A period of time: “ in 3 hours”
  7. location: “in Wall Street”
  8. Attitude of mind:” in agreement”
  9. material with which something is made of / texture : “in gold”.
  10. division:” in two”
  11. membership : “in the Navy”
  12. unspecified time during a day, month, season, year etc: “ in the morning”,” in summer “,”in March”.
Rule
In is also used in where we are not mentioning the exact location .
example:  He is in Bangalore

At
  • If we are to mention the precise location we should use “at”.
example: He is at  Turner's Cafe.
  • we also use “at” before the names of villages, smaller towns etc.but for larger ones we use “in” .
  • “at” is used after adjectives like good, bad ,clever, skillful etc.
example: He is good at wrestling.

  • “at”is also used to point out a specific time example : I will meet you at 5 p.m.

  • “at”is also used to indicate an activity.
example: he laughed at me.

On
  • used to express a surface of something,  position.
example: I put an egg on the table.
the pen is on the table.
  • to indicate a place where something stands for:
example: London stands on the Thames

  • show means of livelihood .
example: he lives on bread and water.

  • to indicate the functioning of something example: This engine works on diesel.

  • to indicate direction in relation to something or somebody.
example : Take the first turn on the right.

  • to suggest reason.
example :on my advice ,he left.

  • to show time .example: on Sunday
  • to show membership( collective nouns) example :on committee, on the Council on the Senate etc.
With.
  • With is used  show attitude like agreement /disagreement, general emotions like anger/love etc.
Example: she agreed with Mary.
John is in love with Sheba.
Are you angry with me?

Dream prepositions
Here we are going to discuss some prepositions that we use with  the activity of dreaming.
About
  • if it is a real dream that is mentioned you can use “about “
example: I dreamt about the Magic Lamp yesterday .

In.
  • if you are in a mental state of abstraction you can use “in” .
example :she is in a dream .

Of.
  • When dream means” to imagine” or “to entertain an idea”,use “of” after “dream”.
example: she is dreaming of becoming an IPS officer.

Prepositions that we use with agreement .

  • we agree with a person and,
  • we agree to a proposal or plan

prepositions that we use with Anger.

  • you are angry with a person
  • You are  angry about something.

anxiety.
  • You are anxious about something (meaning you are worried about that)
  • you are anxious for something( meaning you are anxious for it to happen)

Into.
  • use into  after words like bump, crash, run, drive etc.
Of.
  • you die of a disease .
  • you are asked to produce the proof of something
  • use of “of”after make shows the texture/ material an object is made of.
example: the bangle is made of gold.

From.
  • you  die from a wound.
  • you suffer from a disease
  • to show that something is produced from something.
example:Cider is made from apples( it means to produce)

Off.
  • you catch a disease off someone .
  • to make prey off something
example: The Tiger visited the village to make a meal off its inhabitants.

Reference: Joseph, Mathew. Fine Tune Your English. Orient Blackswan Pvt. Ltd. 2010. Print.

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