Thursday, 26 October 2017

A Review of Fine Tune Your English: Chapter 9, Auxiliary Verbs Part I

Chapter 9
Auxiliary Verbs- I

Auxiliary verbs are helping verbs and the main Auxiliary verbs are :
1)Have
2) Be
and
3) Do
They can be used as regular verbs as well as Auxiliaries.

Have.
As a lexical verb it can have meanings as: eat, drink, take, receive, spend, experience, possession, state , relationship etc.
example : I had a cup of tea (drank)
I had a harrowing time answering their charges(  experience ).
I have three brothers and two sisters (possession/ relationship).
As an auxiliary,  have can show “obligation” example : I have to do all works in the office.


Be.
As a lexical verb it can have meanings like: state ,relationship ,cost ,posession, existence identity etc.
example :There is a hill beside the Silver Thames.( to exist).
How much is that dress?(cost).

As an auxiliary :
1)it can help a past participle to form passive voice .
example:  the car was repainted( Active voice: Somebody repainted  the car)
2) it is used to form the continuous tense.
They are repainting the car .
3)be+ infinitive form which suggests an order
ex: He is to remain here till 5 p.m.
4) to show an  arrangement
ex: The president is to inaugurate the new building.

Do.
As a lexical verb it has meanings like to perform, to study etc.
example : He did it very well .
He is doing his PG.
As an auxiliary verb , Do is used to form 1)questions .
example : Did you complete your homework? 2)negatives.
He did not turn up for the party.
3) to show emphasis.
I do believe that he is a fraud.
4) to avoid repetition.
she said she would help me and she did.

Modal auxiliaries.

modal auxiliaries express modality like possibility probability capacity etc. In short they help the main verb to achieve clearer meaning by suggesting mode. Here are two lists showing some modal auxiliaries and their corresponding contracted negative forms.


Modal auxiliaries.                   
can
could.
may.
might.
shall
will
would
must
ought to
need
used to
dare

contracted negative forms.
Can’t
Couldn’t
mayn’t
might not
shan’t
won’t
wouldn’t
mustn’t
ought not to
needn't
used not to
daren’t.

We shall discuss each of these in the next part: Auxiliary Verbs II

Reference:
Joseph, Mathew. Fine Tune Your English. Orient Blackswan Pvt. Ltd. 2010. Print.

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