Wednesday, 25 October 2017

A Review of Fine Tune Your English: chapter 8, Understanding Verbs

chapter 8
Understanding Verbs

A verb denotes action.It is the part of speech that defines an action. It has a basic form and four assumed forms. It takes different forms depending on the number tense voice and the mood of the verb. therefore, it is like a person who dresses differently for different occasions .
now look at the  example given in your textbook:
going ,going, gone ‘said the auctioneer and went out of the room.
“Let him go he goes to his ruin” said  the man.
here the  5 possible forms of the verb Go is being discussed.

 first one ,present participle( present continuous tense) of the verb “ go”
second one the past participle form” gone
and third one the past tense “went
and fourth one the  infinitive
and fifth one  the -s form.
Generally verbs have two usages
  1. Lexical ( main verb denoting the main action)
  2. Auxiliary.   (helping verbs  )                                                 Look at the examples from your text:
Sentence 1
Old Uncle Williams stood on his head( here stood is used as a lexical verb; the simple past tense of stand and it is the main verb).

Sentence 2.
It will damage your brain who knows you told him( here the main verb is damage and used in the lexical sense. There is also one more verb “will” which is used as an auxiliary[helping verb].It is used to form the future tense and to indicate the possibility or result in the future).

Sentence 3.
I have been standing on my head for many years my son said uncle Williams.( here the main verb is standing and the tense is present perfect continuous. There are totally three verbs : stand, have and been; have and been are used as auxiliaries and stand  lexically)

Sentence 4.
By the end of next year I will have been standing on my head for 50 years he continued.(this sentence has four verbs. Standing( present participle form) as the main verb and will, have and been as auxiliaries. The tense is future perfect continuous).

Sentence 5.
Well, non existent things cannot be damaged said the nephew.( here the main verb is damaged; cannot and be , auxiliaries).

Now i hope, the function of auxiliaries is clear: The finite verb is helpless if there is no auxiliary to help it.
Forms of verbs

The basic form or the Infinitive.
 it can occur with or without “to”; for example: 
1)you ought to consult a doctor.(to + infinitive(consult)
2) only a doctor can diagnose the complaint( infinitive only( diagnose).

The participles.
A verb has two participle forms:
1)Present participle( infinitive + -ing)
2)Past participle( infinitive+ -ed).

Present Participle
ex: barking dogs seldom bite .( here the present participle is used as an adjective to describe the noun dogs)
my dog is barking (here the present participle form is used to form the continuous tense).
so it will not bite till it has stopped barking(here the present participle is used to form the future perfect).

Past Participle
ex: the dog was provoked by the rat pulling at his whiskers.( past participle is used to form the passive voice)
A provoked dog is a dangerous animal.( here it is an adjective)
Nobody Else has ever provoked my dog so violently.(here it is used to form the past perfect tense)..

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
A verb that has an object is called a transitive verb

A verb that has no direct object is called an intransitive verb.

Model Questions:

Fill up the blanks with appropriate verb forms
given in the brackets.
  1. the auctioneer ------- out of the room( go).
  2. let him go; he---- to his ruin(go).
  3. he -–----on his head( stand).
  4. I ---------on my head for many years my son ,said uncle Williams.( stand ).
  5. By the end of next year I ---------on my head for 50 years he continued( stand).
  6. you ought------ a doctor(consult).
  7. ------ dogs seldom bite(bark).
  8. I ----an arrow into the air (shoot).

Please try to do it by yourself.For answers refer textbook.

Reference: Joseph,Mathew. Fine Tune Your English. Orient Blackswan Pvt.Ltd. 2010. print.